Castelo dos cruzados atrai crescente interesse

São João de Acre: fortaleza dos monges-cavaleiros hospitalários

Escavações recentes em São João de Acre, cidade da Galiléia de 50 mil habitantes, desvendaram uma cidade da era dos cruzados.

A prefeitura vai abrir ao público um bairro inteiro da Idade Média, quando Acre era a porta de entrada dos cruzados que iam libertar ou proteger Jerusalém.

A cidade foi conquistada pelos cruzados em 1104 e se tornou um centro de soldados e peregrinos católicos, que defendiam Jerusalém dos infiéis muçulmanos que ocuparam a região por volta do ano 632.

O bairro cruzado ficou tal como era em 1291, quando Acre foi conquistada subitamente por muçulmanos egípcios.

— É como uma Pompéia dos tempos romanos. É uma cidade inteira — maravilha-se o arqueólogo Eliezer Stern, da Autoridade de Arqueologia de Israel.

São João de Acre: muros e porto

Muitos turistas são atraídos pelos prédios medievais já conhecidos, como a fortaleza dos cavaleiros hospitalários, que inclui salões e pilares suntuosos, calabouços e um túnel que comunica com a cidadela dos templários. Há prédios inteiros, ruas originais e utensílios usados pelos cristãos medievais.

Sob poder dos cruzados, a cidade se tornou um centro de monges e soldados. Entretanto, a decadência moral pesou para que Acre caísse nas mãos dos muçulmanos em 1291.

Outras escavações desvendaram ruínas da que foi uma das primeiras igrejas da Terra Santa e talvez a residência do bispo Aeneas, de Acre, que participou em 325 do Primeiro Concílio de Nicéia.

Esse concílio delineou os rumos da Igreja Católica logo depois que o imperador romano Constantino I adotou a fé em Jesus Cristo e encerrou a era das perseguições.

No inicio do cristianismo, São João de Acre foi um grande centro de cultura católica. Nos arquivos do Vaticano se encontram escritos de um peregrino anônimo de Piacenza, Itália, que visitou a cidade em 570 e descreveu a beleza de suas igrejas.

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